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It involves self-awareness, self-management, social awareness empathy , and relationship management. Based on the theory of emotional intelligence, Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee described six leadership styles, which are visionary, coaching, affiliative, democratic, pace-setting, and commanding.

The visionary leadership style is one in which the leader inspires and is someone who strongly believes in his or her vision. The leader also believes in openly sharing information. The coaching leadership style is one in which the leader is a good listener, helps others to identify their strengths and weaknesses, and even counsels them. The affiliative leadership style is one in which the leader promotes harmony, is empathetic, boosts the morale of others, and resolves conflicts. In the democratic leadership style, the leader is an active listener, a team worker, and a collaborator.

In the pace-setting leadership style, the leader has a strong drive to achieve, and takes initiative. In the commanding leadership style, the leader monitors others, and exerts a tight control on others. All six of the leadership styles can be used by the same leader, depending on the situation, the requirements, and the type of subordinates. Each of these styles are equally important in their own way.

It cannot be said that one can be better than the other. As the emotionally intelligent leader has characteristics of empathy, relationship management, are conflict resolution, they are known to be strong proponents of social justice. This strong belief in social justice makes the emotionally intelligent leader suitable and effective in dealing with diversity. It makes them to be accepted by a wide range of people, which turns out to be highly advantageous in bringing about change and being a visionary.

The approach of the emotionally intelligent leader has been found to very similar to transformational leadership. There is a whole lot of research that suggests that transformational leaders are high in emotional intelligence. Thus, there is a strong correlation between transformational leadership and the emotionally intelligent leader.

Leadership is multifaceted process. It involves a number of skills, which are helpful in bringing about change in the individual, organization, and the society. The approaches of transformational leadership and the emotionally intelligent leader are highly popular, widely used, and have been found to be highly effective. Psychology is considered to be a relatively new as well as one of the oldest disciplines. It is relatively new, because it was only in the mid- to late 19 th century that it emerged as a separate, independent discipline.

It is really old, because even though it may not have existed as a separate discipline, psychology and its concepts have been studied for many years within philosophy and physiology.

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This aspect of psychology develops an intrigue and a certain level of curiosity about who exactly can be viewed as the father of psychology — that one person who can be said to be responsible for the development of psychology, for what psychology has become today. One name that quite often comes up to be considered as the father of psychology, especially by lay persons, is Sigmund Freud.

Sigmund Freud has undoubtedly left an indelible mark on the discipline of psychology, and there is no denying that he was a highly significant figure in the development of psychology. He is one of the reasons for psychology being highly popular. His ideas and concepts such as the unconscious mind, dream analysis, Freudian slip, repression, Oedipus complex, etc.

Many of his concepts create a lot of excitement in people, even today. Despite his popularity and strong impact, Freud cannot at all be considered as the father of psychology. In its initial years, psychoanalysis was not even considered to be a part of mainstream psychology. It played a role in including the study of abnormal behavior and mental disorders within psychology. But, initially, psychoanalysis was mostly a separate, isolated field. Thus, Sigmund Freud was not the father of psychology. He can only be called the father of psychoanalysis. A person that can be strongly considered to be the father of psychology is William James.

James was the major precursor to functionalism, the second classical school of psychology. Many consider James to be the greatest psychologist ever.

He was the one who started psychology in the United States of America. William James played a very significant role in the development of modern psychology. His book Principles of Psychology is still considered to be one of the best books of psychology and consciousness. His idea of social self has led to a lot of research in the field of social psychology. The doctrine of pragmatism suggests that the strength of a theory or concept can be viewed from its practical applications.

It was this very doctrine of pragmatism that led to the development of the discipline of applied psychology, which is considered to be the greatest legacy of functionalism. There is a strong emphasis on practical applications in research in psychology. Keeping in view the legacy of William James, it is suggested by many to consider him to be the father of psychology.

However, by the time William James came into prominence within the discipline of psychology, psychology was already well on its way to be established as an independent discipline.

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Additionally, James later on in his career had very little fondness for psychology. He considered himself to be more of a philosopher than a psychologist. Therefore, William James, certainly being the father of American psychology, but cannot be considered the father of psychology. Like William James, two early figures of modern psychology, John B. Watson and William McDougal changed the course of psychology and left a long-lasting legacy. Watson brought about a revolutionary change in the discipline of psychology.

He led to a complete change in the subject matter of psychology. Before Watson, psychology emphasized on the study of consciousness.

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Watson, however, rejected the whole idea of consciousness to be studied in psychology and emphasized on overt behavior, environmental stimuli, and objectivity. The current, most widely used definition of psychology states that psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

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The term behavior in the definition of psychology is largely because of Watson, whose ideas led to the establishment of behaviorism, one of the classical schools of psychology. There is a lot of focus on objectivity and overt behavior. Watson surely left a lasting impact on the subject matter and discipline of psychology. The influence that Watson has had on contemporary psychology make many to consider him to be the father of psychology.


However, by the time Watson began to gain popularity early s , psychology was already well established as a discipline. He certainly brought about a revolutionary change, which lasted for many years. But Watson cannot be credited to be the person who led to the beginning of psychology as an academic discipline. Additionally, Watson did not have a very long career in psychology. Later, in his career, he worked extensively in advertising and marketing.

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Therefore, Watson was clearly the father of behaviorism, but not the father of psychology. Like Watson, his rival, William McDougall, brought about a major change in the discipline of psychology. McDougall is said to have redefined the study of psychology.